Capital – Dushanbe
Location – the South-east of Central Asia
Territorу – 143.1 thsd. square kilometers
Population – more than 8 million people
Currency – somoni, introduced in October, 2000

State borders – Length: 700 kilometers from west to east, 350 kilometers from north to south. In the west and north, Tajikistan has borders with Uzbekistan (1332,9 kilometers) and Kyrgyzstan (about 987 kilometers); in the south – with Afghanistan (1332,9 kilometers and in the east – with China (494,95 kilometers).
Climate – continental. January from +220C (Panj) to -610C (Lake Bulunkul), July from -80C (Lake Bulunkul) to +450C (Panj).

The geography of the Republic of Tajikistan is mountainous with heights above sea level varying between 300 and 7495 meters. Mountains belonging to the highest ranges of Central Asia make up 93% of the total area of the country. There is the Farghona valley in the north, while in the northwest and the central parts there are the Turkmenian, Zarafshon, Hisor and Oloy mountain ranges. The southeast boasts the impressive Pomir range (its highest mountain, the Somoni’s Peak, with an altitude of 7495 meters, is one of the highest summits of the world); while the southwest has the Vakhsh, Hisor and other valleys.

                              The highest mountains
Height above sea level, meters

 I.Somoni’s Peak                                     7495
Abuali Ibn Sino’s Peak                           7134
Korjenevskaya’s Peak                            6974
Moscow’s Peak                                       6785
K.Marx’s Peak                                        6726
Garmo’s Peak                                          6595
Soviet Officer’s
Peak                                                       6233
Engel’s Peak                                          6510
Vudor’s Peak                                         6132
North Muzkol’s Peak                             6128
Mayakovskiy’s Peak                              6096
Pakhor’s Peak                                       6083

The Republic of Tajikistan has an abundance of lake’s and rivers. There are about 947 rivers longer than 10 kilometers with a total length of more than 28500 kilometers. The rivers account for 60% of all hydro-resources of central Asia.

The longest rivers (length, km through the territory of Tajikistan)

Panj                                                921
Amu-darya                                      65
Sir-darya                                         185
Zerafshan                                        306
Bartang – Murghab                        491
Vakhsh                                           524
Kofarnihon                                     387
Gund                                              296

Tajikistan’s high mountains accommodate great supplies of ice and snow. The line of perpetual snow is situated at height between 3500 and 3600 meters in the west and rises up to 5800 meters in the east. The total area of the glaciers in Tajikistan covers more than 8476 square kilometers. There are over the thousand registered glaciers with a length of more than 1.5 kilometers. Sixteen glaciers (such as Fedchenko and Grumm-Grzymailo glaciers) have length of more than 16 kilometers.

                                                     Main glaciers

                                          Square, km2                         Capacity, km³

Fedchenko                              156,0                                      93,6
Garmo                                      114,6                                        —
Vitkovskiy                               50,2                                        6,882
Academy of sciences
of the USSR                            48,0                                        5,242
Nalivkin                                   45,2                                        8,588
Bivachiy                                   37,0                                        8,05
Grumm-Grzhimailo                 37,0                                       19,84

Tajikistan also abounds in lakes. There are some 1300 lakes with a total surface area of 705 km2. Karakul, Sarez and Yashikul are the largest expanses to have been created naturally. The lakes are mainly located at height of 3500 meters.

                            Largest lakes (surface area, km2)

Karakul                                                                            380,0
Sarez                                                                                79,64
Zorkul                                                                               38,9
Yashikul                                                                           38,0
Shorkul                                                                            16,3

Largest reservoirs          Surface area, km2             Capacity,mln.m3

Kairokum                               520,0                                  4160
Norak                                      106,0                                 10500

Tajikistan’s soil, and its flora and fauna are determined by the alpine environment. The flora abounds in wild fruit-bearing trees and in numerous species of plants, which are widely used by the population

Animals are also abundant. Tajikistan boasts some 80 species of mammals, more than 365 kinds of birds, 49 kinds of reptiles, 40 kinds of fish, 10 thousands of various insects. One can observe such predators as snow leopards, lynx, bears, hyenas, otters, wolves, foxes and martens, as well as deer and rock-goats.

At present, there are 4 natural reserves (“Tigrovaya balka”, “Romit”, “Dashti Jum”, “Zorkul”), 13 sanctuaries and 2 national parks in Tajikistan. The total protected are makes 21% of the total territory of the republic.

Tajikistan is also richly endowed with mineral deposits. Currently, more than 400 deposits have been identified, about 100 of which are being exploited. Some 40 kinds of mineral raw materials are being extracted, such as fossil minerals (about 10), ores and non-metallic resources (about 90)/

Tajikistan has the largest coal reserves in Central Asia. The estimated total geological coal reserves amount to some four billion tons. Eighty percent is coking coal. Deposits have been discovered for many rare and precious metals such as zinc, lead, bismuth, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, silver, antimony, mercury and fluorite, as well as gas and petroleum, among others.

                  Agricultural capacities of Tajikistan

Arable lands –                                       864,4 thousands ha.
Irrigated lands –                                    592,3 thousands ha.
Total sown areas –                                 900,2 thousands ha.
Including grain legumes –                     401,9 thousands ha.
Total industrial crops –                          294 thousands ha.
Including cotton-plant –                        262,9 thousands ha.
Potato plant –                                        27,9 thousands ha.
Vegetables –                                          35,8 thousands ha.